History of Boson and their Fundamentals.
In quantum physics, there are lies Bosons, Fermions, Leptons, Photons, Electron and etc.
All of these are elementary particles. Elementary particles are the building blocks of the universe.
In physics, there are two major particle categories that are most related to each other. These are Bosons and Fermions.
In quantum physics, lots of particles are in these two categories.
Here let us talk about the bosons.
What are bosons?
A boson is a particle in physics which obey Bose-Einstein Statistic.
The name Boson is because of an Indian physicist, named as Satyendra Nath Bose.
Who worked with Albert Einstein to develop a method of analysis called Bose-Einstein Statistic.
He was a professor at the University of Calcutta and University of Dhaka.
A boson is a force-carrying particle.
It also has a quantum spin those integer values, such as 0, -1, 1, etc. Bosons are don’t obey the Pauli Exclusion principle (on the other hand fermions obey this).
Types of bosons.
In elementary particles, two types of bosons and in composite particle here are Mesons and Helium-4 atoms, etc.
In elementary Bosons:
1st Gauge and 2nd Scalar.
1 In gauge: Photons, Gluons, Z bosons, W bosons.
Photons: In quantum mechanics, photons are small discrete packets of light energy, electromagnetic energy.
Gluons: Force carriers that mediate the interaction of the strong nuclear force,
which binds together Quarks to form Protons, Neutrons and also holds Protons or Neutrons together within an atom’s nucleus.
W Boson: one of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.
Z Bosons: Same as W bosons(One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force).
2 In scalar: Higgs Bosons
Higgs Bosons: These are those particles which give rise to all mass according to the standard model.
Their existence was confirmed by 14 March 2013. Also, the integer spin value has predicted to be Zero.
In Composite Bosons: Mesons, Helium-4 atoms and etc.
Mesons are those in which two quarks bond together (one quark and one antiquark).
Since we know that quark is fermions, and have half-integer spins value, if two fermions bonded together, then by resulting it would be an integer which making it a Boson.
² Helium-4 atoms:
It consisting of 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 2 electrons.
While after adding up their half spin, we get every time an integer spin value which makes it a Boson.
Therefore after cooling to an ultra-low temp. it becomes a great example of Bose-Einstein Statistics in action(becoming a Superfluid).
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